Free download. Book file PDF easily for everyone and every device. You can download and read online Chinese Economic Development file PDF Book only if you are registered here. And also you can download or read online all Book PDF file that related with Chinese Economic Development book. Happy reading Chinese Economic Development Bookeveryone. Download file Free Book PDF Chinese Economic Development at Complete PDF Library. This Book have some digital formats such us :paperbook, ebook, kindle, epub, fb2 and another formats. Here is The CompletePDF Book Library. It's free to register here to get Book file PDF Chinese Economic Development Pocket Guide.
A cross-border view on trade

To increase exports, China pursued policies such as fostering the rapid development of foreign-invested factories, which assembled imported components into consumer goods for export and liberalizing trading rights. In its 11th Five-Year Program , adopted in , China placed greater emphasis on developing a consumer demand-driven economy to sustain economic growth and address imbalances. China's investment climate has changed dramatically with more than two decades of reform.

In the early s, China restricted foreign investments to export-oriented operations and required foreign investors to form joint-venture partnerships with Chinese firms. The Encouraged Industry Catalogue sets out the degree of foreign involvement allowed in various industry sectors. From the beginning of the reforms legalizing foreign investment, capital inflows expanded every year until Since the early s, the government has allowed foreign investors to manufacture and sell a wide range of goods on the domestic market, eliminated time restrictions on the establishment of joint ventures, provided some assurances against nationalization , allowed foreign partners to become chairs of joint venture boards, and authorized the establishment of wholly foreign-owned enterprises, now the preferred form of FDI.

What's going on with China's economy? - BBC News

In , China granted more preferential tax treatment for Wholly Foreign Owned Enterprises and contractual ventures and for foreign companies, which invested in selected economic zones or in projects encouraged by the state, such as energy, communications and transportation. China also authorized some foreign banks to open branches in Shanghai and allowed foreign investors to purchase special "B" shares of stock in selected companies listed on the Shanghai and Shenzhen Securities Exchanges. These "B" shares sold to foreigners carried no ownership rights in a company.

China revised significantly its laws on Wholly Foreign-Owned Enterprises and China Foreign Equity Joint Ventures in and , easing export performance and domestic content requirements. Foreign investment remains a strong element in China's rapid expansion in world trade and has been an important factor in the growth of urban jobs.

Foreign-invested enterprises today produce about half of China's exports the majority of China's foreign investment come from Hong Kong , Macau and Taiwan , and China continues to attract large investment inflows. However, the Chinese government's emphasis on guiding FDI into manufacturing has led to market saturation in some industries, while leaving China's services sectors underdeveloped. From to , China was the world's second-largest recipient of foreign direct investment after the United States.

Amid slowing economic conditions and a weakening yuan in , December of that year saw a 5. This survey of over members found that "China remains a top three investment priority for six out of ten member companies," though this is a decline from the high of eight out of ten respondents considering China a top priority. China's foreign exchange reserves are the largest in the world.

As part of its WTO accession, China undertook to eliminate certain trade-related investment measures and to open up specified sectors that had previously been closed to foreign investment. New laws, regulations, and administrative measures to implement these commitments are being issued.

Major remaining barriers to foreign investment include opaque and inconsistently enforced laws and regulations and the lack of a rules-based legal infrastructure. Warner Bros. Another major development in the history of foreign investment in China was the establishment of the Shanghai Free Trade Zone in September Outward foreign direct investment is a new feature of Chinese globalization, where local Chinese firms seek to make investments in both developing and developed countries.

Such investments offer access to expertise in marketing and distribution potentially useful in exploiting the developing Chinese domestic market. Since , Chinese companies have been actively expanding outside of China, in both developed and developing countries. At the beginning, state-owned enterprises dominate the foreign acquisition and most of the money goes to oil and minerals. Since , more and more private companies start to acquire non raw material foreign companies.

Below is a list of the top 15 outbound deals from Chinese companies: []. According to market consecutive researches by the Monogram Group, a Chicago-based advertising agency, in , , and , American consumers' willingness to purchase Chinese products across all categories except PC remained the same or became worse during The only sector in which Americans were more likely to purchase was personal computers. Case 1: Shanghai Auto acquired Shanghai Auto wanted the brand and technology to expand its footprint in China.

However, the cultural difference, the objection to transfer the technology and the failed sales of new SUV model put Shanghai Auto's ambition of expansion in jeopardy. It caused huge conflict between Ssangyong employees and Shanghai Auto as things didn't go well as planned. And the global economic crisis put Ssangyong on a survival mode, let alone expansion. For the coming two years, the company recorded huge loss, especially in Europe.

Several factors contributed to the failure:. Since the s medical care , public hygiene and sanitation improved considerably, and epidemics were controlled. Consecutive generations continuously experienced better health. The population growth rate surged as the mortality rate dropped more rapidly than the birth rate. China's massive population has always been a major difficulty for the government as it has struggled to provide for it. In the s, food supply was inadequate and the standard of living was generally low. This spurred the authorities to initiate a major birth control program.

The Great Leap Forward industrial plan in —60 was partially responsible for a huge famine that caused the death rate to surpass the birth rate, and by , the overall population was declining. A second population control drive began in with major efforts focused on promoting late marriages and the use of contraceptives. In , the Cultural Revolution suspended this second family planning program, but resumed four years later with the third attempt by making later marriage and family size limitation an obligation. Since , the efforts have been much more effective.

The third family planning program continued until when the one child per family policy was implemented. In the s, the average overall population growth was around 1. Today it is about 0. One demographic consequence of the one-child policy is that China is now one of the most rapidly ageing countries in the world. According to the latest Forbes China Rich List , China had 66 billionaires , the second largest number after the United States , which had In the Forbes Rich List it stated that there were 15 Chinese billionaires.

In , for the first time, according to statistics released by China's National Bureau of Statistics in January , the size of the labor force, people aged 15 to 59, in China shrank slightly to This trend, resulting from China's one-child policy of population control, is anticipated to continue to at least On 29 October , Xinhua, China's state news agency, reported a change in the existing law to a two-child policy, citing a statement from the Communist Party of China, and the new law is effective from 1 January after it was passed in the standing committee of the National People's Congress on 27 December Development of the country's transportation infrastructure is given a high priority because it is so strategically tied to the national economy and national defense.

China's economic growth is expected to slow to a nearly year low this year | Markets Insider

Regardless, the transportation infrastructure is still not fully developed in many aspects and areas, and it constitutes a major hindrance on economic growth and the efficient logistical movement of goods and people. China's transportation policy, influenced by political, military, and economic concerns, have undergone major changes since Immediately after the People's Republic was founded, the primary goal was to repair existing transportation infrastructure in order to meet military transport and logistics needs as well as to strengthen territorial integrity. During most of the s, new road and rail links were built, while at the same time old ones were improved.

During the s much of the improvement of regional transportation became the responsibility of the local governments, and many small railways were constructed.


  • Managing Your Depression: What You Can Do to Feel Better.
  • The World Bank In China.
  • It's Good That China's Growth Is Slowing. Really..
  • «The Real Economic Growth Rate in China is Already Below 3 Percent»;
  • Rigged!
  • Flappers?

Emphasis was also placed on developing transportation in remote rural, mountainous, and forested areas, in order to integrate poorer regions of the country and to help promote economies of scale in the agricultural sector. Before the reform era began in the late s, China's transportation links were mostly concentrated in the coastal areas and access to the inner regions was generally poor. This situation has been improved considerably since then, as railways and highways have been built in the remote and frontier regions of the northwest and southwest.

At the same time, the development of international transportation was also pursued, and the scope of ocean shipping was broadened considerably. Freight haulage is mainly provided by rail transport. The rail sector is monopolized by China Railway and there is wide variation in services provided. In late China became one of the few countries in the world to launch its own indigenously developed high-speed train. This considerable spending gap allowed the Chinese economy to grow at near optimal conditions while many South American economies suffered from various development bottlenecks such as poor transportation networks, aging power grids and mediocre schools.

Science and technology in China has in recent decades developed rapidly. The Chinese government has placed emphasis through funding, reform, and societal status on science and technology as a fundamental part of the socio-economic development of the country as well as for national prestige. China has made rapid advances in areas such as education, infrastructure, high-tech manufacturing, artificial intelligence, [] academic publishing , patents and commercial applications and is now in some areas and by some measures a world leader.

China is now increasingly targeting indigenous innovation and aims to reform remaining weaknesses. These initiatives are dependent on attracting highly educated overseas Chinese back to China to work in the innovation economy and to teach the next generation of Chinese students.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. This article is about the economy of the People's Republic of China. For the economy of the Republic of China, see Economy of Taiwan. For other uses, see Economy of China disambiguation. Shanghai , the financial centre of China. Fiscal year. Agriculture : 7. Household consumption: Inflation CPI. Population below poverty line. Gini coefficient.

China’s economic growth slides — and that could be bad news for U.S.

Human Development Index. Mining ore processing iron steel aluminum and other metals coal machine building armaments textiles apparel petroleum cement chemicals fertilizer food processing information technology transportation equipment automobiles railcars telecoms equipment locomotives ships aircraft space launch vehicles satellites consumer products including footwear toys electronics military equipment financial services electric power.

Ease-of-doing-business rank. Agricultural products 3. United States Agricultural products 9. European Union FDI stock. Current account. Gross external debt. Public debt. Budget balance. Credit rating.

List of ratings. See also: Metropolitan regions of China and List of cities in China. This section needs additional citations for verification. Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. Main article: National debt of China.

Main article: Tax system in China. See also: Renminbi , Chinese yuan , and Currency of China. Main article: Agriculture in China. Main article: Real estate in China. See also: Energy policy of China. Electricity: Production: 6. See also: Gold mining in China. Main article: Coal power in the People's Republic of China. Main article: Petroleum industry in the People's Republic of China. Main article: Steel industry in China. Main article: Automotive industry in China.

Further information: Telecommunications industry in China , Electronics industry in China , Pharmaceutical industry in China , Defense industry in China , and Shipping industry in China. Main article: Telecommunications in China. Main article: Tourism in China. Main article: Luxury goods of China. Main articles: Labor relations in China and Social welfare in China. Main article: History of trade of the People's Republic of China.


  • «The Real Economic Growth Rate in China is Already Below 3 Percent» | The Market.
  • (18 Videos)!
  • China’s economic growth slides — and that could be bad news for U.S. - Los Angeles Times.

Further information: List of the largest trading partners of China , List of exports of China , List of Chinese administrative divisions by exports , and China—United States trade war. Main article: Demographics of the People's Republic of China. Main article: Transport in China. Main article: Science and technology in the People's Republic of China. China portal Economics portal Business and economics portal.

International Monetary Fund. October World Bank. Retrieved 16 August National Bureau of Statistics of China. Retrieved 21 January Retrieved 9 July Central Intelligence Agency. Retrieved 5 April Xinhua News Agency. Retrieved 9 August Retrieved 4 September People's Daily. Retrieved 2 April United Nations Development Programme. Retrieved 21 June Retrieved 14 August Retrieved 7 September Retrieved 27 January Retrieved 23 January Retrieved 10 September World Trade Organization. Retrieved 1 March Retrieved 26 September On Jan. Retrieved 23 September Retrieved 25 February Scope Ratings.

Retrieved 21 September Retrieved 24 October Schwartz; Rachel Abrams 24 August The New York Times. Retrieved 25 August Retrieved 16 April Retrieved 7 April Retrieved 9 May Geneva, Switzerland: World Trade Organization. Retrieved 22 June Retrieved 28 February — via Youtube. Retrieved 28 February Retrieved 17 October China is It is championing seven "strategic emerging industries": energy efficient and environmental technologies; new energy; new-energy vehicles; next generation information technology; biotechnology; advanced equipment manufacture; and new materials.

The Economist. It could be here". Experts weigh in". Economists Skeptical". Retrieved 8 December Journal of the Asia Pacific Economy , 16 2. ISSN print , online doi Beijing Bulletin. Archived from the original on 14 July Retrieved 12 June Retrieved 20 July Financial Times. Retrieved 27 December Archived from the original on 11 February Measuring Worth. Retrieved on 6 August Retrieved 17 September Unemployment, Inequality and Poverty in Urban China. Retrieved 28 June China Brief , 7 October Chinese Government's Official Web Portal.

Archived from the original on 1 December Retrieved 9 January BBC News. Retrieved 19 February Archived from the original on 15 March Retrieved 11 March Retrieved 1 May Associated Press. Retrieved 30 December University of Michigan Press. Palgrave Macmillan. Zenme You Guo Re Le?

Jiangxi People's Publishing House. Retrieved 22 September The Wall Street Journal. Retrieved 21 August ISSN doi The New Yorker. Retrieved 18 July Wang mocked fears of a bubble—"What's a bubble? Retrieved 16 July In the first quarter of the year — the most recent comparison available — the output of the finance industry accounted for 1.

Retrieved 15 June Retrieved 5 July Retrieved 1 August People with knowledge of the agency's operations said it bought at least 1 trillion yuan worth of shares between July 6 and Of this amount, about billion yuan was spent on July 8. Stewart 9 July Retrieved 11 July Michigan Journal of Business.

Retrieved 23 May Retrieved 13 August The official exchange rate will be set based on the renminbi's trading performance Retrieved 19 August Society for Worldwide Interbank Financial Telecommunication. Retrieved 10 October China Statistical Book. Archived from the original on 25 October Retrieved 26 November Eurasian Food Economy Forum UN Food and Agriculture Organization.

Country Guide. The Prospects for Economic and Financial Cooperation. London: Routledge, pp. Chapter 2; page Asia: Mineral Resources. Archived 31 October Golosinski Mining Science and Technology ' Natural Resources Forum. Blackwell Publishing. Retrieved 17 December The coal industry is hurting nationwide, as coal prices have fallen nearly 60 percent since , said Deng Shun, an analyst at ICIS C1 Energy, a consultancy based in Shanghai. Retrieved 11 October China to calculate oil and gas reserves 25 November Archived from the original on 8 May Energy Economics , 33 2.

Archived from the original on 24 February Archived from the original on 20 March Retrieved 13 November Retrieved 7 November Archived from the original on 28 February US Department of Commerce. Retrieved 4 May Retrieved 4 June SteelGuru India. Retrieved 23 June Retrieved 16 February World Economic Forum. Retrieved 5 October Archived from the original on 15 September Westport, Conn. China Daily. Retrieved 9 November Retrieved 11 November Retrieved 26 February Retrieved 28 March The Register. Retrieved 25 September Retrieved 23 July Al Jazeera , 28 April The Independent.

Retrieved 14 September Retrieved 11 February NYT , 31 October Want China Times. The Voice of Russia. International Herald Tribune. Retrieved 29 January Deutsche Welle. Archived from the original on 2 March Retrieved 7 July FDi Magazine. Retrieved 8 October Retrieved 22 February Hurun Report.

Retrieved 8 February Archived from the original on 26 December Nicolas Archived from the original on 17 September Understanding China's AI Strategy. Center for a New American Security.

Additional Resources

La silenciosa conquista china in Spanish. China's Political System. Archived from the original on 6 May Yin-Wong Cheung; Jakob de Haan MIT Press. Retrieved on The China Quarterly Journals. Sharpe, Inc. China Economy of China at Wikipedia's sister projects. Economy of China. Companies of China. Tax system Labor contract law Labor relations Food safety Intellectual property. Economic history of China. Han dynasty Song dynasty Ming dynasty. Hong Kong Macau Taiwan.

Choose your subscription

Links to related articles. Trade agreements involving China. Norway Sri Lanka. A special administrative region of China , participates as "Hong Kong, China"; 2. Kitts and Nevis St. Lucia St. Economy of Asia. Book Category Asia portal. Republic — People's Republic —present — — — —present Chronology. Baseline islands Border crossings Cities Province-level subdivisions. Khmer voacambodia. Afaan Oromoo voaafaanoromoo.

Bambara voabambara. Hausa voahausa. Ndebele voandebele. Shona voashona. Soomaaliga voasomali. Kiswahili voaswahili. Zimbabwe voazimbabwe. Kurdi dengeamerika. Latin America. Creole voanouvel. Share on Facebook. Share on Twitter. Share via Email. Print this page. Related Stories. President's latest salvo on Twitter comes the same week US and Chinese trade officials had their first contact in months in an effort to revive stalled negotiations. By AFP. East Asia Pacific. Analysts skeptical about China's seriousness in opening up financial sector.

By Saibal Dasgupta.